Monday, 23 November 2015

Study of Psychology

Scientific Study of Psychology
The term behavior refer both to overt, observable action & to covert, not able to be observed ( internal ) mental processes & states such as perception, thought, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and feelings.

Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of human & other animal.
Systematic, objective observations of overt behavior, including verbal behavior, are the sources of psychologists inferences about these mental processes and states. The chief goals of psychology are the accurate and feelings and the investigation of the many variables biological, personal, and social, that interact in determining behavior and mental processes.

The field of psychology is therefore intimately connected with physiology and with other behavioral sciences such as anthropology and sociology.
Given the broad terrain encompassed in this definition of psychology, together with the fact that the field is continually growing in size and complexity, no single psychologist could possibly cover all aspects of the field. Contemporary psychologist tend to be specialists in one major area or sub-field, and the most adequate and comprehensive definition of psychology can be derived from descriptions of what specialists in each area actually do as scientists and practitioners. A definition derived in this way, however, changes as the field expands and becomes enriched.

The sub-fields or specialties of psychology may be grouped into two major categories, " basic and applied ". The basic areas are those concerned with research and the discovery of fundamental facts and principles. The applied areas of psychology are those in which the facts and principles discovered in basic research are used to accomplish pragmatic, socially useful goals. These goals include treating emotionally disturbed people, reducing inter group tensions, improving educational procedures, and helping to design equipment that can be used safely and effectively. The distinction between basic and applied areas is not fixed or clear cut. Basic research contributes to applied work may advance basic psychology. For example, a developmental psychologist, interested primarily in basic research, may evaluate preschool programs to determine how specific early training procedures affect cognitive development. A clinical psychologist, interested primarily in treatment, may analyze the case histories of his patients to test hypotheses about factors underlying psychological maladjustment.

Psychiatry, a medical field, is clearly differentiated from psychology. Psychiatrists diagnose and treat emotional disturbances and mental illness through the use of various therapy techniques such as drugs, shock, or surgery in addition to psychotherapy. A clinical psychologist, who generally holds a PH. D. Degree in psychology rather than a medical degree, also diagnoses and treats emotionally disturbed patients, but the clinical psychologist uses only psycho therapeutic methods.

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